Closest 10-10 Electrode position to each Brodmann area

  • Area LEFT RIGHT
  • ba01 C3 C4
  • ba02 C3 C4
  • ba03 C3 C4
  • ba04 C3 C4
  • ba05 C1 CP2
  • ba06 FC3 FC4
  • ba07 P1 P2
  • ba08 F1 F2
  • ba09 AF3 AF4
  • ba10 FP1 FP2
  • ba11 AF7 FPz
  • ba17 O1 O2
  • ba18 O1 O2
  • ba19 PO7 PO4
  • ba20 FT9 FT10
  • ba21 T7 T8
  • ba22 T7 T8
  • ba23 Pz Pz
  • ba24 F1 F2
  • ba31 Pz Pz
  • ba32 F1 AFz
  • ba37 P7 P8
  • ba38 FT9 FT10
  • ba39 P5 P6
  • ba40 CP3 CP4
  • ba41 C5 T8
  • ba42 T7 C6
  • BROCA/44R F5 FC6
  • ba45 F8
  • ba46 AF7 F6
  • ba47 F7 F8

Closest Brodmann area to each 10-10 electrode

ELECTRODE / SITE

  • FP1 ba10L
  • FPz ba10L
  • FP2 ba10R
  • AF7 ba46L
  • AF3 ba09L
  • AFz ba09L
  • AF4 ba09R
  • AF8 ba46R
  • F7 ba47L
  • F5 ba46L
  • F3 ba08L
  • F1 ba08L
  • Fz ba08L
  • F2 ba08R
  • F4 ba08R
  • F6 ba46R
  • F8 ba45R
  • FT9 ba20L
  • FT7 ba47L
  • FC5 BROCLA
  • FC3 ba06L
  • FC1 ba06L
  • FCz ba06R
  • FC2 ba06R
  • FC4 ba06R
  • FC6 ba44R
  • FT8 ba47R
  • FT10 ba20R
  • T7 ba42L
  • C5 ba42L
  • C3 ba02L
  • C1 ba05L
  • Cz ba05L
  • C2 ba05R
  • C4 ba01R
  • C6 ba41R
  • T8 ba21R
  • TP7 ba21L
  • CP5 ba40L
  • CP3 ba02L
  • CP1 ba05L
  • CPz ba05R
  • CP2 ba05R
  • CP4 ba40R
  • CP6 ba40R
  • TP8 ba21R
  • P9 ba20L
  • P7 ba37L
  • P5 ba39L
  • P3 ba39L
  • P1 ba07L
  • Pz ba07R
  • P2 ba07R
  • P4 ba39R
  • P6 ba39R
  • P8 ba37R
  • P10 ba37R
  • PO7 ba19L
  • PO3 ba19L
  • POz ba17L
  • PO4 ba19R
  • PO8 ba19R
  • O1 ba18L
  • Oz ba17R
  • O2 ba18R

Here is the anatomical gyral names of the various Brodmann areas. Recall that there is a Brodmann area in both left and right hemisphere, the homologues. Gyrus (Functional name)

  • 1-3 – intermediate, caudal, and rostral postcentral (Primary Somatosensory Cortex)
  • 4 - gigantopyramidal (Primary Motor Cortex)
  • 5 - preparietal (Somatosensory Association Cortex)
  • 6 - agranular frontal (Premotor cortex and Supplementary Motor Cortex)
  • 7 - superior parietal (Somatosensory Association Cortex)
  • 8 - intermediate frontal (includes Frontal eye fields)
  • 9 - granular frontal (Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DLFC)
  • 10 - frontopolar (DLFC)
  • 11 - prefrontal (Orbitofrontal)
  • 12 - prefrontal (Orbitofrontal)
  • 17 - striate (Primary visual cortex, V1)
  • 18 - parastriate (Secondary visual cortex, V2)
  • 19 - peristriate (Tertiary or Associative visual cortex, V3)
  • 20 - inferior temporal
  • 21 - middle temporal
  • 22 - superior temporal (caudal section considered Wernicke's area by most)
  • 23 - ventral posterior cingulate
  • 24 - ventral anterior cingulate
  • 31 - dorsal posterior cingulate
  • 32 - dorsal anterior cingulate
  • 37 - occipitotemporal
  • 38 - temporopolar (temporal pole)
  • 39 – angular
  • 40 - supramarginal
  • 41-42 – ant. & posterior transverse temporal
  • 44 - opercular (part of Broca's area on left hemisphere)
  • 45 - triangular (part of Broca's area on left hemisphere)
  • 46 - middle frontal
  • 47 - orbital
  • 48 - retrosubicular

EXCLUDED FROM SKIL BRODMANN MONTAGE due to small size and distance from scalp

  • 25 - subgenual*
  • 26 - ectosplenial*
  • 28 - entorhinal*
  • 29 - granular retrolimbic *
  • 30 - agranular retrolimbic *
  • 33 - pregenual *
  • 34 - dorsal entorhinal *
  • 35 - perirhinal *
  • 36 - ectorhinal *
  • 43 - subcentral *
  • 52 - parainsular *

FP1 covers Brodmann area 10 on the front left side of the frontal lobe. This is part of the prefrontal cortex, that highly developed part of the brain which sets us apart from other mammals since it is responsible for the execution of cognitive tasks. Complex behaviours and simultaneous mental activities need a kind of working memory that keeps track of running tasks in either pending states or executive states. For most cognitive functions information needs to be retrieved after completion of another task. The prefrontal cortex co-ordinates all of this mental traffic and shows clear elevation in beta levels when performing calculative tasks, logical puzzles or other intellectual questions. FP2 covers the right side of the prefrontal cortex. F7 and F8 cover parts of the frontal cortex. The frontal cortex is involved in integrating sensory information with data retrieval from memory locations. This way new sensory information can be compared with earlier perceptions. Area 45 – which is one part of Broca’s area, a brain centre dedicated to language production – at position F8 is also believed to recover semantic information and to evaluate that information in the light of the current context.

C3 and C4 are located on top of the primary somatosensory cortex, in the parietal part of the cortex. This is a clearly defined strip on top of the brain responsible for processing touch and sensation as well as keeping track of the location of your body parts (proprioception).

The two electrodes at the back of the headset, O1 and O2 for the occipital area of the cortex, cover the secondary visual cortex which is processing information relating to visual association. Cells are tuned to simple properties such as orientation, spatial frequency, and color. Depending on the exact positioning of the headset – which is likely to be slightly different per individual – they might also track the primary visual cortex from which the information is forwarded to the secondary visual cortex. Primary cortex here corresponds to Brodmann area 17 and the secondary to area 18. The connectivity between primary and secondary cortices is important for visual memory.

1 2 & 3 Bilateral

  • Localize pain
  • Localize touch and vibration
  • Localize temperature
  • Sense of fingers
  • Sense of body
  • Move hands
  • Move mouth and tongue
  • Swallowing
  • Anticipate pain (2, 3)
  • Anticipate tickling
  • Mirror neurons

1 2 & 3 L

1 2 & 3R (Primary motor cortex - Precentral gyrus)

4

  • Muscle sequences
  • Move hands
  • Limbs
  • Sense of our fingers
  • Softness and vibration
  • Move tongue and mouth
  • Actions, Touches
  • Swallow
  • Voluntary breathing
  • Muscle imagery
  • Blinking
  • Eye movements
  • Bicycling

4L

  • Tactile

4R

  • Verbal encoding during episodes

(Secondary sensorimotor cortex )

5

  • Chaotic patterns
  • Spatial reasoning
  • Muscle imagery
  • Tool-use gestures
  • Muscles
  • Mirror neurons
  • Coordinate hands
  • Saccades
  • Working memory
  • Tactile
  • Pain
  • Muscle locations

5L

  • Imitate novel actions

5R

  • Action memory

(Premotor cortex or Lateral Premotor Area (PMA); Supplementary Motor Area (SMA))

6

  • Action planning
  • Action learning
  • Start moves
  • Muscle imagery
  • Imagined moves
  • Voluntary breathing
  • Saccades
  • Laughter, smiling
  • Words
  • Language
  • Language switching
  • Understand speech
  • Lipreading
  • Human voices
  • Acoustic rhythms
  • Generate melodies
  • Working memory
  • Mnemonics
  • Episodes
  • Topographic memory
  • Locations
  • Self-reflection
  • Update locations
  • Eye guidance
  • Observe actions (Mirror neurons)
  • Solve novelty
  • Orchestrate
  • Calculation

6L

  • Speech muscles
  • Novel words
  • Phonemes
  • Object names
  • Deduction
  • Inhibit response

6R

  • Sequential moves
  • Monitor errors
  • Strong odors
  • Same or different

(Superior parietal lobule)

7

  • Self-reflection
  • Goals

7L

  • Recall episodes
  • Tool use
  • Handwriting and spelling
  • Shift attention
  • Language
  • Literalness
  • Imageability

7R

  • Personal space
  • Estimate
  • Meta-emotions
  • Visuospatial attention
  • Mental rotation
  • Stereopsis
  • Line bisection judgments

(Lateral and medial supplementary motor area)

8

  • Muscle learning
  • Muscle imagery
  • Muscle control
  • Saccades
  • Laughter, smiling
  • Executive control
  • Planning
  • Speech programs
  • Language processing
  • Language translation
  • Generating sentences
  • Lipreading
  • Working memory
  • Perceptual priming
  • Topographic memory
  • Visuospatial and visuomotor attention
  • Sequence learning
  • Proprioceptive stimulation
  • Pain anticipation
  • Processing uncertainty
  • Inductive reasoning
  • Calculation
  • Auditory imagery

8L

8R

  • Memory retrieval
  • Nonconscious saccades

(Middle frontal gyrus)

9

  • Short-term memory
  • Recency
  • Orchestrate behavior
  • Verbal fluency
  • Word-stem completion
  • Error detection
  • Human voices
  • Infer (a, b, ?)
  • Intentions
  • Action authorship
  • Energize

9L

  • Generate sentences
  • Inference
  • Idioms
  • Categorization

9R

  • Suppress sadness
  • Working memory
  • Spatial memory
  • Recognition
  • Recall
  • Recognize emotions
  • Planning
  • Calculation
  • Familiar odors

10

  • Working memory
  • Spatial memory
  • Recognition
  • Recall
  • Intentional forgetting
  • Nonspeech sounds
  • Recognize emotions
  • Calculation
  • Pain
  • Joint attention

10L

  • Syntax(a)
  • Metaphor
  • Lexical
  • Verbs
  • Self-reflection
  • Self-appraise
  • Inferences during reading

10R

  • Recall episode(a)
  • Nonspeech sounds
  • Familiar odors
  • Reward vs conflict
  • Risk vs benefit

(Gyrus rectus)

11

  • Olfaction
  • Nonspeech sounds
  • Reward vs conflict

11L

  • Unexpected outcomes
  • Idioms
  • Face-name

11R

  • Self-calm
  • Odors

12

12L

12R (Insular Cortex)

13

  • Expectation of painful stimulation
  • Reward fluctuation
  • Pain processing
  • Heat
  • Touch
  • Vibration
  • Vestibulation
  • Olfaction and taste
  • Verbal memory
  • Action planning
  • Swallowing
  • Categorization
  • Error awareness
  • Motivated reasoning
  • Risk-taking
  • Emotional inhibition
  • Express fear or disgust
  • Vocal pitch
  • Humor appreciation

13L

  • Phonemes

13RBold Text (Primary visual cortex)

17

  • Receive
    • Light intensity
    • Orderly visual patterns
    • Contours
    • Colors
    • Spatial orientation
    • Motion
  • Organize
    • Visual attention
    • Visual priming
  • Express
    • Help saccade eyes

17L

17R

  • Visuo-spatial

(Secondary visual cortex -Middle occipital gyrus)

18

  • Receive
    • Light intensity
    • Motion
    • Orderly visual patterns
    • Understand finger gestures
  • Organize
    • Monitor color and shape
    • Visual priming
    • Face-name
  • Express
    • Help saccade eyes

18L

  • Visual word form
  • Visual mental imagery

18R

  • Visuo-spatial and visuo-emotional processing

(Secondary visual cortex - Inferior occipital gyrus)

19

  • Receive
    • Light intensity
    • Visual patterns
    • Motion
    • Understand finger gestures
    • Sign language
  • Organize
    • Monitor color and shape
    • Feature-based attention
    • Orientation-selective attention
    • Visual priming
    • Visual memory recognition
    • Spatial working memory
    • Phonological demands

19L

  • Saccades
  • Visual imagery
  • Inferential reasoning

19R

  • Animacy
  • Visuospatial challenge
  • Motion
  • Visuo-spatial
  • Visual priming
  • Visual recognition
  • Spatial working memory
  • Face-name
  • Saccades a)
  • Visual imagery

(Inferior temporal, Fusiform and Parahippocampal gyri)

20

  • Visual fixation
  • Identify intention

20L

  • Suspicion
  • Truth telling
  • Process latter parts of sentences
  • Visual categorization
  • Lexical categories
  • Metaphor comprehension
  • Language comprehension and production
  • Monitor speech

20R

  • Category ambiguity
  • Perceptual closure
  • Working memory

(Middle temporal gyrus)

21

  • Categorization
  • Observe motion
  • Complex sounds
  • Attribute intention

21L

  • Monitor text and speech
  • Sentence generation
  • Word generation
  • Deductive reasoning

21R

  • Prosody

(Superior Temporal Gyrus - Part of Wernicke's area)

22

  • Sentence generation
  • Word generation
  • Monitor speech
  • Repeating words
  • Complex sounds
  • Deductive reasoning

22L

  • Auditory language
  • Categorization
  • Learning tone-based 2nd language

22R

  • Affective prosody
  • Nonverbal sounds
  • Previous eye movements

(Posterior cingulate gyrus)

23

  • Action memory
  • Episodic retrieval
  • Recall
  • Resolve proactive interference
  • Learn complex procedure
  • Finger movements
  • Temperature processing
  • Visual discrimination
  • Evaluative judgment
  • Self/other distinction
  • Classical conditioning

23L

  • Lexical categories
  • Fear conditioning
  • Threatening words
  • Mood swings

23R

  • Cortical hub in infancy
  • Disconnects with trauma
  • Word and face encoding

(Anterior cingulate gyrus)

24

  • Process pain or unpleasantness
  • Inhibiting responses
  • Processing emotional cues
  • Muscle strategy
  • Sense of balance
  • Episodic memory
  • Timekeeping or time-based memory
  • Visuospatial attention
  • Divided attention
  • Auditory attention
  • Self-other overlap
  • Process familiar odors
  • Taste
  • Sexual arousal
  • Reasoning
  • Working memory

24L

  • Object-naming
  • Verbal fluency
  • Induction
  • Remembering after delay
  • Multitasking
  • Worry
  • Mood swings

24R

  • Sustain response set
  • Verbal initiation and suppression
  • Memory retrieval
  • Conflict monitor
  • Monitors consequences of actions
  • Suppress aggression
  • Mood swings

(Subgenual gyrus)

25

  • Moral reasoning

25L

  • Evaluate emotional words

25R

26

26L

26R (Hippocampal areas - Part of medial temporal lobe) 27 * Pattern separation (overlapping representations are made less similar) * Face memory * Picture memory * Auditory memory(a) * Emotions * Categories * Visual memory * Autobiographical memory * Olfactory and gustatory memory * Recognition, recall and retrieval * Procedural memory consolidation * Memory for novelty * Memory for negative stimuli * Face-based emotional perception * Erotica * Experience stress * Congruent facial movements (mirror neurons) * Craving * Hunger * Embarassment * Spatial * Landmarks (a, b, c ) * Novelty * Past and future events * Anticipating regret * Insight * Decision-making 27L * Categorization (a, b, c,) 27R

28

28L

28R

29

  • Precautions

29L

29R

30

30L

  • Attending to speech
  • Listening to sentences

30R

31

31L

  • Self-evaluation

31R

32

  • Activated by affective distress

32L

  • Visual uncertainty
  • Mood regulation

32R

  • Sustain response set
  • Identify pain
  • Self-insight
  • Reward
  • Reappraise negative emotions

33 33L 33R 34 34L 34R 35 35L 35R 36 36L 36R (Posterior inferior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, and fusiform gyrus)

37

  • Episodes
  • Faces
  • Motion
  • Visual fixation
  • Monitor color and shape
  • Intentions
  • Drawing

37L

  • Categorization
  • Word retrieval
  • Sign language
  • Metaphor
  • Reading (GPC)
  • Face-name
  • Deduction
  • Numbers

37R

  • Familiarity judgments
  • Face identity

(Temporal pole)

38

  • Intentions
  • Moral judgments
  • Experience emotions
  • Identify emotions
  • Attachment
  • Categorization
  • Speech comprehension
  • Verbal disambiguation
  • Stories
  • Aversive sounds
  • Familiarity
  • Humor

38L

  • Self/other
  • Attend to speech
  • Inferences
  • Identify social emotions
  • Aversiveness
  • People’s names
  • Music appreciation

38R

  • Familiar voices
  • Irony
  • Faux pas
  • Social behavior

(Angular gyrus; Part of Wernicke's area)

39

  • Reading
  • Spatial focusing
  • Theory of mind
  • Executive control
  • Action sequences

39L

  • Sentence generation
  • Verbal creativity
  • Numerical facts
  • Calculation

39R

  • See differently from others
  • Visuospatial
  • Sight reading of music
  • Self-relevance
  • Resolve surprise
  • Action authorship
  • Situational context

(Inferior parietal lobule - Supramarginal gyrus)

40

  • Attend to phonemes
  • Categorization
  • Verbal creativity
  • Aversiveness
  • Emotional working memory
  • Conscious recollection
  • Visual grasping
  • Gesture imitation
  • Visuomotor planning
  • Repetitive passive movements
  • Intention/conflict detection
  • Somatosensory
  • Motion
  • Deduction
  • Empathy
  • Music performance
  • Goals
  • Imitate novel actions

40L

  • Calculation (integer computation)
  • Verbal creativity

40R

  • Sentences
  • Self-reflection
  • Same or different
  • Sustain attention

(Primary auditory cortex - Heschl's gyrus)

41

  • Auditory
  • Harmony
  • Sound intensity
  • Pitch
  • Vowel segregation
  • Auditory priming
  • Auditory working memory
  • Visual speech perception

41L

41R (Secondary auditory cortex)

42

  • Auditory
  • Harmony
  • Sound intensity
  • Pitch
  • Vowel segregation
  • Auditory priming
  • Auditory working memory
  • Visual speech perception

42L 42R (Subcentral area)

43

  • Tactile digit stimulation
  • Spoken language

43L

43R (Inferior frontal gyrus - Pars opercularis)

44

  • Word generation
  • Unintelligible speech b
  • Attend to speech
  • Syntactic working memory
  • Working memory
  • Episodic memory
  • Declarative memory
  • Mirror other's movements
  • Speech programs
  • Tactile imagery
  • Goals
  • Word and face encoding
  • Arithmetics
  • Object manipulation
  • Familiar odors
  • Music appreciation

44L

  • Linguistic fluency
  • Grapheme-to-phoneme conversion
  • Grammar
  • Sequential sounds
  • Lexical inflection
  • Sentence comprehension
  • Imitate finger movements
  • Phonemes

44R

  • Express emotions
  • Speech intonation
  • Sentence comprehension
  • Inhibition actions
  • Generate melodies
  • Monitor actions

(Inferior frontal gyrus - Pars triangularis)

45

  • Semantic & phonological processing
  • Generate words
  • Verbal fluency
  • Lexical search
  • Phonemes
  • Grammar
  • Categories
  • Sign language
  • Reason
  • Metaphors
  • Working memory
  • Episodic memory
  • Declarative memory
  • Digits
  • Mirror movement neurons
  • Response inhibition
  • Mental rotation
  • Word and face encoding
  • Aesthetic and music appreciation
  • Modulate emotions

45L

  • Attend to speech
  • Lexical inflection
  • Generate melodic phrases
  • Familiar odors
  • Retrieving categories
  • Phonemes

45RBold Text

  • Affective prosody
  • Monitor actions
  • Timed behavior

(Medial frontal gyrus)

46

  • Memory recognition
  • Working memory
  • Categorization
  • Monitor
  • Chewing
  • Drawing
  • Mirror neurons
  • Saccades
  • Intention/conflict detection
  • Music appreciation
  • Willfulness
  • Strategy

46L

  • Verbal fluency
  • Phonemes
  • Self-reflection

46R (Inferior frontal gyrus - Pars orbitalis) 47

  • Categorization
  • Phoneme
  • Lexical inflection
  • Attend to speech
  • Working memory
  • Episodic memory
  • Adverse emotional inhibition
  • Temporal coherence
  • Intention
  • Deduction

47L

  • Idioms
  • Make inferences during reading
  • Categorization
  • Familiar odors
  • Retrieve categories
  • Music

47R

  • Affective prosody
  • Behavioral inhibition
  • Manage conflict and reward
  • Monitor actions
  • Monitor unattended informatio
 
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